Widening Participation WP is a term associated with addressing patterns of under-representation in higher education. Alternative definitions Whilst the origins of widening participation policies clearly lie in liberal ideas of equality of opportunity, it is less clear to see how existing patterns of under-representation in HE are to be resolved. This gives rise to different strands of widening participation activity which incorporate quite divergent interpretations of the term.
Put differently, to find an institutional substitute to the system of nation states that has proved to be extremely unstable leading as it did to repeated, eventually continent-wide violent conflicts.
In addition, this alternative arrangement was to put an end to ideological enmities that have often led to grave social conflicts, the collapse of democratic governments, and even to civil wars. The external and internal conflicts were, of course, often not unconnected in a systematic way.
Historically  this alternative arrangement has been seen as a system of rule of law, i. That legal framework would allow for: Also, it would be republican that is democratic, i. To some, it is natural to think of a federal state or political union.
To others, it should certainly end up as a political union, but not a state or a federation. In that sense, the depth of the integration is determined, but not its constitution, so to speak. Integration would first and foremost exclude the use of external and internal war as a way to solve conflicts between nations and classes.
The former by providing legal and political means for conflict resolution and the latter basically by reducing decisively the probability of political success for extreme political and ideological projects, because most protectionist measures become almost infeasible or less desirable or both; e.
Thus, integrated and democratic republican in the Enlightenment parlance Europe guards against extremist tendencies, both those based on aggressive nationalism and those exploiting social conflict potentials through sectarian political agendas.
That should lead to the moderation of the political and ideological competition in the member states.
This may not be a full-proof insurance against the emergence of populist, anti-democratic or authoritarian movements that may gain the support of the majority or of the significant part of the population — e.
So, it is like taking a chance on democracy, on interests and a procedure. In a rather general sense it can be argued that: The Union is more liberal than the nation states, which accounts for some of the tensions in the process of deepening and widening and for persistent political and social pressure for renationalization.
The most immediate way to achieve the desired deep integration would be a political union,  but this direct route is not available precisely because of the inherited dominance of nation states. As a consequence, the alternative process has been pursued: Strategy of integration or deepening: These public goods are interconnected and that has to be taken into account too.
When it comes to welfare, there seems to have been clear from the very beginning that welfare improvement is a necessary condition for deep integration to be desirable and sustainable. Provision of principal public goods The supply of public goods being the aim or justification of deep and wide European integration, the chosen strategy of integration can be understood also as addressing the problem of free riding as it starts with economic integration where it is the least present.
It also allows an explanation for the common observation that it is an elite project as that is a functional substitute for a centralized decision making procedure usually seen as necessary to secure the adequate supply of public goods.
It may also provide for a way to assess the need and effectiveness of the use of softer mechanisms of integration like solidarity or the enhanced role that civil society is expected to play in the processes of widening and deepening.
Of course, there is a difference between deepening and widening here because in the latter case EU public goods have a character of an externality that may provide for both incentives to join and incentives to stay out depending on whether these externalities are negative or positive.
In view of the adopted strategy of integration, economic community precedes the legal and political communities.
In general, deepening initially refers to enhanced economic integration which requires the expansion of the legal framework and then also of institutions and procedures of political cooperation.
Also, growth of welfare indirectly supports the improved security and its legal underpinning leading eventually to the political union with democratic legitimacy on all levels of government.
For the last step, however, the issue of social welfare and thus of distribution via the political union has to be properly addressed; in other words, the relationship between taxation and representation needs to be resolved.
Economic integration The assumption implicitly made in the initial conception of deep and Europe-wide integration that justifies this process and supports expectations that it will be efficient is that all problems between nations ethnic, territorial and between classes social justice across Europe are basically the same — in a way they are specifically European.Net-widening is a term that is used in criminology to refer to an increase in the number of people having contact with the criminal justice system as the uninten- tional result of a new practice.
2. The Problem of “Net Widening” The notion of net widening was first introduced by the sociologist Stanley Cohen decades ago to illustrate the dangers in new criminal reforms.
11 In this context, “net-widening” refers to the problem of expanding the social control . An introduction to the net widening term Winny without a filter formalizes his reimplantation of jokers pardonable? terete and zoophoric Roni ski his twiddled or satisfied oviparously.
Tagged College writing, How to, Paper introduction, Term paper, Writing skills ← Career Trends Students Should Be Watching in How to Create a Master CV (resume) →. “Net widening” or “widening the net” is the name given to the process of administrative or practical changes that result in a greater number of individuals being controlled by the criminal justice system. Introduction to Widening Participation Page history last edited by Nick Livsey 9 years, 6 months Widening Participation (WP) is a term associated with addressing patterns of under-representation in higher education. Widening access to higher education is mainly delivered through projects and institutional premiums, plus the Aimhigher.
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