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Universities Only a handful of educational theorists hold the view that if only the adult world would get out of the way, children would ripen into fully realized people.
Most thinkers, educational practitioners, and parents acknowledge that children are born helpless and need the care and guidance of adults into their teens and often beyond. More specifically, children need to learn how to live harmoniously in society. Historically, the mission of schools has been to develop in the young both the intellectual and the moral virtues.
Concern for the moral virtues, such as honesty, responsibility, and respect for others, is the domain of moral education. Moral education, then, refers to helping children acquire those virtues or moral habits that will help them individually live good lives and at the same time become productive, contributing members of their communities.
In this view, moral education should contribute not only to the students as individuals, but also to the social cohesion of a community.
The word moral comes from a Latin root mos, moris and means the code or customs of a people, the social glue that defines how individuals should live together. A Brief History of Moral Education Every enduring community has a moral code and it is the responsibility and the concern of its adults to instill this code in the hearts and minds of its young.
Since the advent of schooling, adults have expected the schools to contribute positively to the moral education of children. When the first common schools were founded in the New World, moral education was the prime concern. New England Puritans believed the moral code resided in the Bible.
Therefore, it was imperative that children be taught to read, thus having access to its grounding wisdom. As early as the colony of Massachusetts passed a law requiring parents to educate their children. In the famous Old Deluder Satan Act strengthened the law. Without the ability to read the Scriptures, children would be prey to the snares of Satan.
As common school spread throughout the colonies, the moral education of children was taken for granted. Formal education had a distinctly moral and religion emphasis. Harvard College was founded to prepare clergy for their work.
Those men who carved out the United States from the British crown risked their fortunes, their families, and their very lives with their seditious rebellion. Most of them were classically educated in philosophy, theology, and political science, so they had learned that history's great thinkers held democracy in low regard.
They knew that democracy contained within itself the seeds of its own destruction and could degenerate into mobocracy with the many preying on the few and with political leaders pandering to the citizenry's hunger for bread and circuses. The founders' writings, particularly those of Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, John and Abigail Adams, and Benjamin Franklin, are filled with admonitions that their new country make education a high priority.
While the early leaders saw economic reasons for more and longer schooling, they were convinced that the form of government they were adopting was, at heart, a moral compact among people. As the young republic took shape, schooling was promoted for both secular and moral reasons. Ina time when some of the Founding Fathers were still alive, Abraham Lincoln wrote, in his first political announcement March 9,"I desire to see a time when education, and by its means, morality, sobriety, enterprise and industry, shall become much more general than at present.
He and his followers were worried by the widespread drunkenness, crime, and poverty during the Jacksonian period in which they lived. Of concern, too, were the waves of immigrants flooding into cities, unprepared for urban life and particularly unprepared to participate in democratic civic life.
Mann and his supporters saw free public schools as the ethical leaven of society.
Inin his twelfth and final report to the Massachusetts Board of Education, he wrote that if children age four to sixteen could experience "the elevating influences of good schools, the dark host of private vices and public crimes, which now embitter domestic peace and stain the civilization of the age, might, in 99 cases in everybe banished from the world" p.
In the nineteenth century, teachers were hired and trained with the clear expectation that they would advance the moral mission of the school and attend to character formation. Literature, biography, and history were taught with the explicit intention of infusing children with high moral standards and good examples to guide their lives.
Students' copybook headings offered morally uplifting thoughts: During this period of our evolution as a nation, moral education was deep in the very fabric of our schools. There was, however, something else in the fabric of moral education that caused it to become problematic: In the United States, as a group of colonies and later as a new nation, the overwhelming dominant religion was Protestantism.
While not as prominent as during the Puritan era, the King James Bible was, nevertheless, a staple of U. The root of the moral code was seen as residing there. However, as waves of immigrants from Ireland, Germany, and Italy came to the country from the mid-nineteenth century forward, the pan-Protestant tone and orthodoxy of the schools came under scrutiny and a reaction set in.
Concerned that their children would be weaned from their faith, Catholics developed their own school system.Bhopal: An essay on moral responsibility and civic virtue. About us.
Editorial team. Moral Compromise, Civic Friendship, and Political Reconciliation. Simon Căbulea May - - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 . Normal accidents and responsibility as civic virtue The second, revised story of the Challenger accident seems to be much more realistic than the first one, but the conclusion derived from it seems to be much worse, or at least more pessimistic.
Bhopal: An Essay on Moral Responsibility and Civic Virtue. Journal of Social Philosophy 22(1. is and in to a was not you i of it the be he his but for are this that by on at they with which she or from had we will have an what been one if would who has her.
Bhopal: An Essay on Moral Responsibility and Civic Virtue Ladd, John () Corporate Mythology and Individual Responsibility. Creator. Ladd, John. An Essay on Moral Responsibility and Civic Virtue Ladd, John () Related Items in Google Scholar.
Moral and Civic Responsibility and the Commercialization of Higher Education Review of Educating Citizens: Preparing America's Undergraduates for Lives of Moral and Civic Responsibility, by Anne Colby, Thomas Ehrlich, Elizabeth Beaumont, And Jason Stephens; Universities in the Marketplace: The Commercialization of Higher .