Environmental Effects A s with production and use of any fuels, aspects of biofuel production and use have benefits and adverse effects. This chapter discusses potential environmental effects from the production and use of algal biofuels, the potential influence of perceived or actual impacts on societal acceptance, and some of the health impacts potentially emanating from the specific environmental effects.
Purpose[ edit ] The purpose of the NEPA is to promote informed decision-making by federal agencies by making "detailed information concerning significant environmental impacts" available to both agency leaders and the public.
It also encourages communication and cooperation between all the actors involved in environmental decisions, including government officials, private businesses, and citizens. An EIS should be created in a timely manner as soon as the agency is planning development or is presented with a proposal for development.
The statement should use an interdisciplinary approach so that it accurately assesses both the physical and social impacts of the proposed development. These factors may include actions that receive federal funding, federal licensing or authorization, or that are subject to federal control.
If the action may or may not cause a significant impact, the agency can first prepare a smaller, shorter document called an Environmental Assessment EA.
If the EA indicates that no significant impact is likely, then the agency can release a finding of no significant impact FONSI and carry on with the proposed action. Otherwise, the agency must then conduct a full-scale EIS.
A CATEX is usually permitted when a course of action is identical or very similar to a past course of action and the impacts on the environment from the previous action can be assumed for the proposed action, or for building a structure within the footprint of an existing, larger facility or complex.
For example, two proposed sections of Interstate 69 in Kentucky were granted a CATEX from NEPA requirements as these portions of I will be routed over existing freeways requiring little more than minor spot improvements and a change of highway signage.
The intent of NEPA is to help key decisionmakers and stakeholders balance the need to implement an action with its impacts on the surrounding human and natural environment, and provide opportunities for mitigating those impacts while keeping the cost and schedule for implementing the action under control.
However, many activities require various federal permits to comply with other environmental legislation, such as the Clean Air Actthe Clean Water ActEndangered Species Act and Section 4 f of the Federal Highway Act to name a few.
Similarly, many states and local jurisdictions have enacted environmental laws and ordinances, requiring additional state and local permits before the action can proceed. An EIS typically has four sections: A description of the Affected Environment.
A Range of Alternatives to the proposed action. Alternatives are considered the "heart" of the EIS.
An analysis of the environmental impacts of each of the possible alternatives. This section covers topics such as: Impacts to threatened or endangered species Air and water quality impacts Impacts to historic and cultural sites, particularly sites of significant importance to Indigenous peoples.
Social and Economic impacts to local communities, often including consideration of attributes such as impacts to available housing stock, economic impacts to businesses, property values, aesthetics and noise within the affected area Cost and Schedule Analyses for each alternative, including costs and timeline to mitigate expected impacts, to determine if the proposed action can be completed at a acceptable cost and within a reasonable amount of time While not required in the EIS, the following subjects may be included as part of the EIS or as separate documents based on agency policy.
Financial Plan for the proposed action identifying the sources of secured funding for the action. For example, the Federal Highway Administration has started requiring states to include a financial plan showing that funding has been secured for major highway projects before it will approve an EIS and issue a Record of Decision.
An Environmental Mitigation Plan is often requested by the Environmental Protection Agency EPA if substantial environmental impacts are expected from the preferred alternative.
Additional documentation to comply with state and local environmental policy laws and secure required federal, state, and local permits before the action can proceed. Every EIS is required to analyze a No Action Alternative, in addition to the range of alternatives presented for study.
Environmental Pollution is an international journal that seeks to publish papers that report results from original, novel research that addresses significant environmental pollution issues and problems and contribute new knowledge to science. Our analysis, using a dataset of cities representing all city sizes and regions worldwide, demonstrates that economic activity, transport costs, geographic factors, and urban form explain 37% of urban direct energy use and 88% of urban transport energy use. The impact of CO 2 emissions and economic growth on energy consumption in 58 countries. income and the share of heavy industry output in national income are significant factors affecting energy consumption. Table 7 summarizes the results concerning the effects of CO 2 emissions and economic growth on energy consumption for the four.
The No Action Alternative identifies the expected environmental impacts in the future if existing conditions were left as is with no action taken by the lead agency.
Analysis of the No Action Alternative is used to establish a baseline upon which to compare the proposed "Action" alternatives. NEPA process[ edit ] The NEPA process is designed to involve the public and gather the best available information in a single place so that decision makers can be fully informed when they make their choices.
This is the process of EIS Proposal: In this stage, the needs and objectives of a project have been decided, but the project has not been financed.
As discussed above, the government may exempt an agency from the process. The agency can then proceed with the project and skip the remaining steps. The proposal is analyzed in addition to the local environment with the aim to reduce the negative impacts of the development on the area.
Occurs when no significant impacts are identified in an EA. Environmental Impact Statement Scoping:Our analysis, using a dataset of cities representing all city sizes and regions worldwide, demonstrates that economic activity, transport costs, geographic factors, and urban form explain 37% of urban direct energy use and 88% of urban transport energy use.
UK industry co-ordinated its response to the issues arising from the Gulf of 9. Safety and Risk management in oil and gas industry. Safety and risk management should be legislated to ensure standard in our working Environment. Environmental Issues.
You may live on it, but how much do you really know about the third rock from the sun? Get to know Earth a little better with articles and guides covering topics such as climate change, conservation, and energy. An environmental impact statement (EIS), under United States environmental law, is a document required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for certain actions "significantly affecting the quality of the human environment".
Environmental Pollution is an international journal that seeks to publish papers that report results from original, novel research that addresses significant environmental pollution issues and problems and contribute new knowledge to science.
The impact of CO 2 emissions and economic growth on energy consumption in 58 countries. income and the share of heavy industry output in national income are significant factors affecting energy consumption. Table 7 summarizes the results concerning the effects of CO 2 emissions and economic growth on energy consumption for the four.