However, any road on the south bank between Reading and Newbury had declined to insignificance by this period. Early maps show roads radiating southwards from Newbury. These would have been important routes for the transport of wool for export from the Channel ports such as Southampton. On the evidence of the Tudor maps, the road over Greenham Common and Knightsbridge to Kingsclere was particularly important, and the current route through Whitchurch was not the dominant road southwards.
Roads in the 18th century Rochdale to Halifax in The writer Daniel Defoe travelled on horseback through England and Wales between and More than a thousand years earlier, the Romans had constructed a network of solidly-made military roads across England to link London with their other main settlements.
In Defoe's time they were still the best roads in the country. The postal service used them, so most letters were routed via London.
However, due to the volume of correspondence generated in the north and west of the country, the Post-Master General had recently established a cross-post route which ran from Plymouth in the far south-west up through Bristol and Gloucester to Liverpool, and then across via Manchester and Leeds to Hull.
Since this route was presumably already a major traffic artery, it would seem reasonable to suppose that it was well maintained and adequate for its purpose.
The reality was rather different, as Defoe found when he followed it from Rochdale to Halifax, a ride of about fifteen miles along a main highway of the time, now known as the A What follows is taken from his account of the journey, in the summer of It was the middle of August, and in some places the harvest had only recently been gathered.
Even so, the cold was 'very acute and piercing', and the mountains were covered with snow. There was a little overnight snow on the ground, but the sun was shining as the travellers left Rochdale in the early morning and rode east towards the hills. After a mile or so they were riding uphill, and the wind was beginning to rise, and then it began to snow.
By the time they reached the top of the hill the snow was blowing straight into their faces. They had difficulty keeping their eyes open for long, and the track they were following had disappeared under a thick blanket of snow. Even the horses were uneasy, and Defoe's little spaniel turned his back to the wind and howled piteously.
They paused, and debated whether they should return to Rochdale.
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Then one of the servants, who had ridden a little ahead, called out that he could see Yorkshire on the other side of the hill, and that there was a plain way down. They joined him, and Defoe says that he could see the mark or face of a road on the side of the hill They decided to continue on foot, leading their horses.
After about a mile the blizzard had lessened, and eventually they came to a house where they asked their way. There followed another steep descent, again on foot, and when they arrived at the bottom they found 'a few poor houses' where again they could check that they were on the right road.
Defoe continues, rather innocently, We thought now we were come into a Christian country again, and that our difficulties were over; but we soon found ourselves mistaken in the matter; for we had not gone fifty yards beyond the brook and houses adjacent, but we found the way began to ascend again, and soon after to go up very steep, till in about half a mile we found we had another mountain to ascend, in our apprehension as bad as the first, and before we came to the top of it, we found it began to snow too, as it had done before.
And when they had successfully climbed this 'mountain' and reached the bottom on the other side, there was another one ahead of them, and in the space of eight miles they crossed eight steep hills. They did eventually get to Halifax, but I suspect this was a journey that Defoe would never quite forget.
He was used to the roads being bad though this didn't stop him complaining about them and offered the thought that the soil of all the midland part of England, even from sea to sea, is of a deep stiff clay, or marly kind, and it carries a breadth of near 50 miles at least, in some places much more; nor is it possible to go from London to any part of Britain, north, without crossing this clayey dirty part.
Since the affected counties enjoyed a great deal of trade with London, as well as between themselves, and the routes north lay through them, so the roads had been plow'd so deep, and materials have been in some places so difficult to be had for repair of the roads, that all the surveyors rates have been able to do nothing; nay, the whole country has not been able to repair them.Affinity at Serangoon condo, main developer Oxley Holdings Limited (“Oxley” or “the group”) is a domestic-grown Singaporean assets developer.
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.. Roads consist of one or two roadways (British English: carriageways), each with one or more lanes and any associated sidewalks (British English: pavement) and road verges.
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