The root words are archein, which means "original or old"; and typos, which means "pattern, model or type". The combined meaning is an "original pattern" of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are derived, copied, modeled, or emulated. The psychologist, Carl Gustav Jung, used the concept of archetype in his theory of the human psyche.
Last Updated on Sunday, 27 October After completing his medical studies, Jung obtained a position at the Burghoelzli Hospital in Zurich, Switzerland.
There he worked with patients suffering from schizophrenia, while also conducting word association research. In Freud invited Jung to Vienna, and they began a professional relationship.
Freud soon began to favor Jung as his successor in the new and growing psychoanalytic movement. Jung and Freud held in common an understanding of the profound role of the unconscious. Their understanding of the nature of the unconscious, however, began to Jungian essays. Jung likewise felt betrayed, believing that Freud, because of his inflexibility, had failed to support this extension of their mutual work.
In the years from towhen Jung was largely ostracized by the psychoanalytic community, he embarked upon a deep, extensive, and potentially dangerous process of self-analysis that he called a "confrontation with the unconscious" Jung,chap.
Jung emerged from this personal journey with the structures in place for his theories on archetypes, complexes, the collective unconscious, and the individuation process. These theories, along with his understanding of the symbolism found Jungian essays dreams and in other creative processes, formed the basis of his clinical approach, which he called analytical psychology.
Throughout his long life, Jung continued to develop and broaden his theoretical framework, drawing both on his clinical practice and his study of such wide-ranging subjects as alchemy, Eastern religions, astrology, mythology, and fairy tales.
Jungian Theory Jungian theory is very much experience driven. It is an approach which keeps one foot in the world of outer events and the other on the inner realm of fantasies, dreams, and symbols. Jung himself largely moved from human observation to theory. He constructed his concepts on the evidence derived from his clinical observations and personal experience, including an extended period of deep and intense self-analysis see Jung, Jung drew upon an enormous variety of mythical and anthropological material to amplify and illuminate rather than to prove his theory.
Only then could the mass of imagery and data from many sources be organised. The organisation itself then helps to understand one aspect or other of human behavior. Thus the process is circular: This is, of course, also true for the various neo-Freudian usages of this terminology.
In the Freudian conceptualization, ego refers to a psychic structure which mediates between society superego and instinctual drives id. For Jung the ego can be understood in a much more dynamic, relative, and fragile way as a complex, a feeling-toned group of representations of oneself that has both conscious and unconscious aspects and is at the same time personal and collective.
Simply put, too simply perhaps, the ego is how one sees oneself, along with the conscious and unconscious feelings that accompany that view Hopcke,p. The ego, as one complex see below among many, is not seen by Jungians as the goal of psychological development.
The Self can be understood as the central organizing principle of the psyche, that fundamental and essential aspect of human personality which gives cohesion, meaning, direction, and purpose to the whole psyche. Resting for the most part close to the surface of the unconscious are those personal attributes and elements of experience which have been excluded from the ego, usually because of parental and societal disapproval.
These elements are known as the shadow, and they tend to be projected on less favored individuals and groups. While in general these qualities are negative ones, the shadow may also contain positive aspects which the individual has been unable to own.
It reveals certain selected aspects of the individual and hides others. A well-developed individual may have several personae appropriate to business and social situations. The concept of the archetypes is perhaps the most distinctive of the Jungian concepts Jung, b, It is a concept which Jungians understand as a given in human experience but which often baffles those from other psychoanalytic schools.
He observed that many of these symbols had appeared again and again throughout history in mythology, religion, fairy tales, alchemical texts, and other forms of creative expression.
Jung became convinced that the source of this symbolic material was what he identified as the collective unconscious, a pool of experience accessible to all humans through history which lies below the personal unconscious. The archetypes were, for Jung, "typical modes of expression" arising from this collective layer.
The archetypes are neither images nor ideas but, rather, fundamental psychic patterns common to all humans into which personal experiences are organized.
He termed these clusters "feeling-toned complexes" Jung,par. Feeling-toned complexes are the basic structural units of the psyche.
Jung saw complexes as "the living units of the psyche" a, p.
They are like real personalities in that they contain images, feelings, and qualities, and if they engulf the ego, they determine behavior as well Sandner and Beebe,p.
Reality sees to it that the peaceful cycle of egocentric ideas is constantly interrupted by ideas with a strong feeling-tone, that is, by affects.
A situation threatening danger pushes aside the tranquil play of ideas and puts in their place a complex of other ideas with a very strong feeling-tone. The new complex then crowds everything else into the background.Feb 10, · Carl Jung’s Theory concerning Personality Types This essay will give an introduction to Carl Jung and what started his research, the essay will discuss Carls Jung’s personality types and their characteristics and will also discuss the Myers Briggs type indicator.
Jungian Theory. Jungian theory is very much experience driven. It is an approach which keeps one foot in the world of outer events and the other on the inner realm of fantasies, dreams, and symbols.
In Two essays on analytical psychology, Collected works 7. Jung, C. G. (). On the problem of psychogenesis in mental disease. In The.
Jungian Psychology Theory Introduction Jungian was a renowned theoretical psychologist born in Switzerland in mid and bore the names Carl Gustav Jung (O'Connor et al, ).
His father was his protestant minister father, who according to Jungian did not convey and practice the gospel he preached. Jungian therapy is especially unique in its strongly philosophical nature that emphasizes abstract rather concrete concepts.
Such concepts include spirituality, symbolic images, and the connection between the individual, humankind, and the greater cosmos.
In Jungian psychology, archetypes are highly developed elements of the collective unconscious. The existence of archetypes can only be deduced indirectly by using story, art, myths, religions, or dreams.
Sample Paper on Carl Jung. Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychologist who pioneered the field of analytical psychology. Jung introduced the concepts of the introverted and extroverted personalities, collective unconsciousness, and archetypes.