No comments Oceanography from Space The use of space satellite data for ocea n observations allows marine scientists to view biological, chemical, and physical interactions within the oceans on regional and global scales. Satellite studies have revolutionized our ideas of how the ocean works.
Satellite sensors measure a myriad of different phenomena including: Altimeter Data Several different in struments are used to collect oceanographic measurements. The altimeter flies aboard the satellite at approximately 1, kilometers miles above Earth and emits a radar pulse that reflects off the sea surface.
Because the speed of the pulse and location of the satellite are known, scientists can calculate the height of the sea surface. In addition, the strength of the radar signal depends on the size of the surface ripples, which are in turn related to the wind speed, allowing the wind speed to be calculated.
Altimeter data is also used for identifying the topography of the seafloor. Radiometer Data A radiometer can be used to collect surface temperature data and ocean color data.
The temperature of the sea surface can be calculated using the infrared portion of the data. Because currents and water masses vary considerably in This view from the space shuttle Columbia shows silt running into the sea from the Mahakam River in Borneo, Indonesia, and the delta that has formed as a result.
The delta is the roughly triangular-shaped landmass extending from where the river branches into many distributaries, out to the coastal area. The feathery areas seaward of the delta are very fine-grained sediments that are being transported away by coastal ocean currents.
Eddies are one feature in particular that can be identified using an infrared radiometer. These are generated by large-scale currents, such as the Gulf Stream. Eddies can affect the distribution of marine life and can last for many years before dissipating.
Locating such eddies and studying their dynamics can help researchers track pollution such as oil spills and determine where marine life may be located. Ocean color can be determined by measuring the portions of the visible spectrum reflected from the ocean surface.
It can indicate a number of things to an oceanographer, such as amount of plankton and amount of vegetation. The color of the ocean changes slightly, from a bright blue to a dark blue or black when plankton float freely or concentrate in areas. These concentrations are called blooms.
These colors can indicate to scientists the productivity of the oceans and potential for greater amounts of wildlife since plankton are the basis of the marine food web and without plankton all marine life would suffer. Satellite data have become accurate and dependable enough that they is now integrated with other forms of marine data collection.
In addition, satellite data provide a large-scale view of ocean dynamics that otherwise would be unavailable. What has emerged is exciting new information about vast areas of previously unstudied open water.The study of life in outer-space and on other planets and moons is Exobiology.
Possibly the most famous exobiologist was the late Carl Sagan (Nov 9, - Dec 20, ). Share to. ESS Space and Plasmas (3) NW Survey of various phenomena occurring in outer regions of Earth's atmosphere, ionosphere, magnetosphere, and Van Allen radiation belts.
Laboratory applications include plasma thrusters and fusion. NAVDAS-AR is the 4DVAR extension of the United States Navy’s operational 3DVAR data assimilation system, NAVDAS (Naval Research Laboratory Atmospheric Variational Data Assimilation System), where AR stands for accelerated representer.
Like NAVDAS, NAVDAS-AR is cast in observation space, and is an observation space formulation of the 4DVAR algorithm, in contrast to the European Centre for.
Perhaps it’s because oceans are still primarily viewed—by oceanographers and the public—as one of the last great frontiers.
Kintisch calls attention to this in the Science article, concluding with a call for support of ocean studies “ comparable to [funding for] research in outer space ”. Oceanography as viewed from space has and will become more and more valuable as we begin to understand more of the world’s oceans.
Space oceanography uses a number of different sciences to research the oceans that include physics, geology, biology, chemistry, and engineering (Cracknell 13).
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