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Looping is the process of repeatedly executing one or more steps of an algorithm or program; it is essential in programming, as most programs perform repetitious tasks. Every loop consists of the following three parts: It is essential that some provision in the program be made for the loop to stop; otherwise, the computer would continue to execute the loop indefinitely - a loop that doesn't stop is called an endless loop or infinite loop; when a program gets stuck in an endless loop, programmers say that the program is "looping".
The body of the loop - the step or steps of the algorithm that are repeated within the loop. This may be only one action, or it may include almost all of the program statements. Transfer back to the beginning of the loop - returns control to the top of the loop so that a new repetition iteration can begin.
While and Until are opposites of each other. For example, Do While X Both the "While" and the "Until" versions of the pre-test loop are flowcharted below. The only difference between the two is the placement of the "True" and "False" paths extending from the decision diamond.
Repetition Control StructureWith a pre-test loop, since the "loop termination decision" is tested at the top of the loop, it is possible that the statements in the body of the loop will never be executed.
First, the condition is evaluated. If the condition is TRUE, the list of statements is executed and the Loop statement sends control back to the Do While statement, where the condition is reevaluated.
The Do Until form of this statement works as follows: If the condition is FALSE, the list of statements is executed and the Loop statement sends control back to the Do Until statement, where the condition is reevaluated.
A typical application for the pre-test loop is the "input loop". The input loop works as follows: Repetition Control Structure 1 A "priming", or initial Input is performed outside the loop. It obtains the initial value for the variable that will control the loop termination decision also called the "loop control variable"; it will determine whether or not to enter the loop for the first time.
The condition following one of these compares the loop control variable to a value that will signify the end of the loop. Such values are called sentinel or terminating values.
The last statement in the body of the loop should be an Input to obtain another value for the loop control variable. Repetition Control StructureThe Post-Test LoopWith a post-test loop, the "loop termination decision" is tested at the bottom of the loop, therefore the statements in the body of the loop will always be executed at least one time.
Repetition is a major rhetorical strategy for producing emphasis, clarity, amplification, or emotional effect. Within the history of rhetoric terms have been developed . What is the effect of the repetition in Anne’s statement that “All we can do is wait Jews and Christians alike are waiting, the whole world is waiting, and many are . File Types. The following file types are acceptable file formats for the main manuscript files: Manuscript files: Word (doc, docx), Encapsulated Postscript (eps), Rich Text Format (rtf), or pdf (accepted for initial submissions only).
The "While" and the "Until" versions of the post-test loop are flowcharted below. For this situation the Exit Do or Exit For statement can be used.
Searching for a test value in an array look at each element of the array 1 by 1, exiting when a match is found. Repetition Control StructureCounting, Totaling and AveragingWithin loops, a variable that serves as a counter is frequently used to count how many times the loop has been repeated, thus reflecting how many items have been processed.
With a Do While or Do Until loop, you typically do not know in advance how many items will be processed. With Do While or Do Until, your counter variable is typically initialized to zero or one, and you increment your counter variable with an assignment statement that has the form: Another type of variable frequently used within loops is a total or accumulator variable.
An accumulator variable is typically initialized to zero and then has an amount added to it each time that the loop repeats. The amount that is added to the accumulator variable will generally be from an item that was obtained directly from input, or from a variable derived from a calculation based on one or more input items.
You add to your accumulator variable with an assignment statement that has the form: If your application calls for an average, your loop must perform both counting and totaling. When the loop exits, you can calculate the average by dividing the total by the count, for example:in this Series describes the global burden and effect of low back pain and provides an overview of the causes and course of low back pain.
In this Series paper, we summarise the evidence for effectiveness of interventions for the prevention and treatment of low back pain and the recommendations from best practice guidelines. Draw feedback from students after each statement is read.
Ask why they took the position they did – note if any students changed position based on the contributions of others.
deviation or repetition. Other students can challenge the speaker if the rules are broken, or can add points missed at the end of each student’s speech.
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Repetition is one of the linguistic devices of which Charles Dickens is very fond, and the novelist makes things easy for his readers by his constant repetitions, and his habitual phrases are remembered by readers who are not used to reading with close attention.