When and where the first lecture took place is not well established, but all evidence suggests it was also in the Grafton galleries, likely in December And in a sense, he did not need to.
A Brief History of Formalism a.
Nineteenth Century Antecedents When A. The result was that anyone interested in the arts in the early part of the nineteenth century would be exposed to a new aesthetic doctrine whose currency involved variations on terms including aesthetic, disinterest, free, beauty, form and sublime.
This conflict between social usefulness versus pure art also gained, on the side of the latter, an association with Walter Pater whose influence on the English Aesthetic movement blossomed during the s where the adoption of sentimental archaism as the ideal of beauty was carried to extravagant lengths.
Here associations were forged with the likes of Oscar Wilde and Arthur Symons, further securing though not necessarily promoting a connection with aestheticism in general. As should be clear from this brief outline it is not at all easy, nor would it be appropriate, to suggest the emergence of a strictly unified school of thought.
There are at least two strands that can be separated in what has been stated so far. Books are well written or badly written.
Yet for Wilde, and many others, the claim was taken more specifically to legitimise the production and value of amoral, or at least morally controversial, works. In a slightly different direction although recognisably local to the aboveone might cite James Whistler: Art should be independent of all claptrap—should stand alone […] and appeal to the artistic sense of eye or ear, without confounding this with emotions entirely foreign to it, in devotion, pity, love, patriotism and the like.
While the second half of this statement seems merely to echo the sentiments expressed by Wilde in the same year, there is, in the first half, recognition of the contention Whistler was later to voice with regard to his painting; one that expressed a focus, foremost, on the arrangement of line, form and colour in the work.
The ruminations of which are taken to have given justification to various art movements from abstract, non-representational art, through Dada, Surrealism, Cubism.
While marked here as two separable strands, a common contention can be seen to run through the above intuitions; one which embarks from, but preserves, something of the aesthetic concept of disinterestedness, which Kant expressed as purposiveness without purpose.
On this view, cultural and stylistic history, and the genesis of the artwork itself do not enhance true understanding. Meyer even suggests that the separation of the aesthetic from religion, politics, science and so forth, was anticipated although not clearly distinguished in Greek thought.
It has long been recognised that aesthetic behaviour is different from ordinary behaviour; however, Meyer goes on to argue that this distinction has been taken too far.
Citing the Artistic Formalism associated with Clive Bell see Part 2he concludes that in actual practice we do not judge works of art in terms of their intrinsic formal qualities alone.
However, Artistic Formalism, or its close relatives, have met with serious or potentially disabling opposition of the kind found in Meyer. Gregory Currie and David Davies both illustrate a similar disparity between our actual critical and appreciative practices and what is in the end suggested to be merely some pre-theoretical intuition.
It is the assumption we recover from Monroe Beardsley in the view that the limits of musical appreciation are the limits of what can be heard in a work. Secondly, Walton argues that the aesthetic properties an artwork actually has are those it is perceived as having when seen under the category to which it actually belongs.
Danto argues that, regarding most artworks, it is possible to imagine two objects that are formally or perceptually indistinguishable but differ in artistic value, or perhaps are not artworks at all.
Despite the prominence of these anti-formalist arguments, there has been some notable resistance from the Formalist camp.
Here, in an article written for the collection, Jack Meiland argues that the value of originality in art is not an aesthetic value.
In criticism of the above position held by Leonard Meyer, who defends the value of originality in artworks, Meiland asks whether the original Rembrandt has greater aesthetic value than the copy? On this view, Meiland argues, the copy, being visually indistinguishable from the original, is equal in aesthetic value.
The originality of the work will be preserved in the copy—it is rather the level of creativity that may be surrendered. We might indeed take the latter to devalue the copied work, but Meiland argues that while originality is a feature of a work, creativity is a feature applicable to the artist or in this case a feature lacking in the copyist, it therefore cannot affect the aesthetic quality of the work.
Thus we cannot infer from the lack of creativity on the part of the artist that the work itself lacks originality. Danto, for example, actually endorsed a version of the latter in maintaining that while indistinguishable objects may differ in terms of their artistic value or art-status in being perceptually indiscernible, two objects would be aesthetically indiscernible also.
Hence, at its strongest formulation Aesthetic Formalism distinguishes aesthetic from non-aesthetic value whilst maintaining that the former is restricted to those values that can be detected merely by attending to what can be seen, heard, or immediately experienced.
Nick Zangwill has developed a more moderate Aesthetic Formalism, drawing on the Kantian distinction between free formal and dependent non-formal beauty. But so too are strongly anti-Formalist positions such as those attributable to Walton, Danto, and Currie according to which none of the aesthetic properties of a work of art are purely formal.The Formalist Criticism of Roger Fry and Clement Greenberg In examining the formalist criticisms of Roger Fry and of Clement Greenberg, it is important to see one critic as a springboard for the other.
The Essential Vermeer Glossary of Art-Related Terms: D - I. This glossary contains a number of recurrent terms found on the present site which may not be clear to all readers, especially when employed within the context of an art discussion.
Walton’s anti-formalism is presented in his essay “Categories of Art” in which he first argues that the aesthetic properties one perceives an artwork as having will depend on which category one perceives the work as belonging to (for example, objects protruding from a canvas seen under the category of “painting”—rather than under the category .
Art criticism: Art criticism, the analysis and evaluation of works of art. More subtly, art criticism is often tied to theory; it is interpretive, involving the effort to understand a particular work of art from a theoretical perspective and to establish its significance in the history of art.
Many cultures have. attheheels.com * Fry, Roger, “An Essay on aesthetics” London: Oxford University Press, pp * Greenberg, Clement, “Abstract, representational and so forth” In “Art and Culture” Boston: Beacon Press, pp Roger Fry Essay In Aesthetics - attheheels.com Frances Spalding, Roger Fry Aesthetics / Roger Fry Essay In Aesthetics; Somos una Iglesia que busca la salvacion para todo el Mundo, Roger Fry’s Formalism - Marxists Internet ArchiveRoger Fry’s .