Although I must admit to being a little confused the wording, I see it as being in terms of ability too, act of, and the first to act.
Argument from Motion Our senses prove that some things are in motion. Things move when potential motion becomes actual motion.
Only an actual motion can convert a potential motion into an actual motion. Nothing can be at once in both actuality and potentiality in the same respect i. Therefore nothing can move itself. Therefore each thing in motion is moved by something else.
The sequence of motion cannot extend ad infinitum. Therefore it is necessary to arrive at a first mover, put in motion by no other; and this everyone understands to be God.
Argument from Efficient Causes We perceive a series of efficient causes of things in the world. Nothing exists prior to itself. Therefore nothing [in the world of things we perceive] is the efficient cause of itself.
If a previous efficient cause does not exist, neither does the thing that results the effect. Therefore if the first thing in a series does not exist, nothing in the series exists. If the series of efficient causes extends ad infinitum into the past, for then there would be no things existing now.
That is plainly false i. Therefore efficient causes do not extend ad infinitum into the past. Therefore it is necessary to admit a first efficient cause, to which everyone gives the name of God.
Argument from Possibility and Necessity Reductio argument We find in nature things that are possible to be and not to be, that come into being and go out of being i. Assume that every being is a contingent being.
For each contingent being, there is a time it does not exist. Therefore it is impossible for these always to exist.
Therefore there could have been a time when no things existed. Therefore at that time there would have been nothing to bring the currently existing contingent beings into existence. Therefore, nothing would be in existence now.
We have reached an absurd result from assuming that every being is a contingent being. Therefore not every being is a contingent being. Therefore some being exists of its own necessity, and does not receive its existence from another being, but rather causes them.
This all men speak of as God. Argument from Gradation of Being There is a gradation to be found in things: The maximum in any genus is the cause of all in that genus.
Therefore there must also be something which is to all beings the cause of their being, goodness, and every other perfection; and this we call God. Argument from Design We see that natural bodies work toward some goal, and do not do so by chance.
Most natural things lack knowledge. But as an arrow reaches its target because it is directed by an archer, what lacks intelligence achieves goals by being directed by something intelligence. Therefore some intelligent being exists by whom all natural things are directed to their end; and this being we call God.Later, the teleological argument was accepted by Saint Thomas Aquinas and included as the fifth of his "Five Ways" of proving the existence of God.
In early modern England clergymen such as William Turner and John Ray were well-known proponents. A listing of Saint Thomas Aquinas’ five proofs for the existence of God.
This is a selection from the the Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Second and Revised Edition, translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province, This translation is now in the public domain. The existence of God can be proved in five ways. The first and more manifest way is the argument from motion.
It is certain, and. Proofs for the Existence of God and Creation: A Catholic View and any one of the five ways is enough to establish the existence of God.
But each proof begins from a different series of God's effects and brings out a different aspect of the divine actuality and causality. The Christian Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas. New York: Random. Motion: Some things undoubtedly move, though cannot cause their own motion.
Since, as Thomas The unity of God is such that God's essence is the same as God's existence. In Thomas's words, "in itself the proposition 'God exists' is necessarily true, for in Catholic Churches named after St.
Thomas Aquinas. Saint Thomas Aquinas Cathedral. He says: “When the existence of a cause is demonstrated from an effect, this effect takes the place of the definition of the cause in proof of the cause's existence” (ST Ia ad 2). In other words, the term God— at least as it appears in ST Ia —refers only to that which produces the observed effect.