Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Get Access Functionalism and Marxism Essay Sample Functionalism and Marxism are traced back to theories adopted by sociologists in the nineteenth century.
Based on the socialist and dialectical theories of Karl Marx, Marxist criticism views literary works as reflections of the social institutions out of which they are born. According to Marxists, even literature itself is a social institution and has a specific ideological function, based on the background and ideology of the author.
In essence, Marxists believe that a work of literature is not a result of divine inspiration or pure artistic endeavor, but that it arises out of the economic and ideological circumstances surrounding its creation.
For Marxist critics, works of literature often mirror the creator's own place in society, and they interpret most texts in relation to their relevance regarding issues of class struggle as depicted in a work of fiction.
It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but on the contrary their social being, that determines their consciousness. Although Marx and Friedrich Engels detailed theories of Socialism early in the twentieth century, it was not until the s that Marxist literary theory was systematized.
The greatest impetus for this standardization came after the October Revolution of in Russia.
The resulting socialist form of government and society, although uncertain about the length of time it would take for the new economic standards to create a new culture, believed that such a change was imminent. In the meantime, Socialist Realism was accepted as the highest form of literature, guiding both literary creation and official literary criticism in Russia.
In the years since then, Russian literary theory has modified its extreme socialist stance to acknowledge that literary creation is a result of both subjective inspiration and the objective influence of the writer's surroundings.
He has defined his Marxist theories of literature and criticism in such works as Die Eigenart des Asthetischenand remains central to the study of Marxist criticism today.
In addition to being the guiding principle behind most literary works in communist and socialist Russia, Marxism also greatly influenced Western writers.
Many writers, including Richard Wright, Claude McKay, Jean Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, and James Joyce, were deeply influenced with Marxist and socialist theories of the day, and much of this reflection is evident in their writings of the time.
In the case of Claude McKay, Marxist theory provided a framework for issues of racial inequality and justice that were often addressed in his works. Following the failure of the Communist revolution, Marxist critics and writers were faced with the realization that Socialism had failed as a practical ideology.
In recent years, literary criticism has expanded in scope to address issues of social and political significance. Marxist critics such as Raymond Williams and Fredric Jameson have expanded their realm of study to include cultural and political studies in their interpretations of literature.
In this regard, Marxist critics, along with feminists, have begun studying literary criticism as an aspect of cultural sciences, notes Michael Ryan in his essay on the state of contemporary cultural and literary studies.- Marxist Criticism Introduction Marxist literary criticism is based upon the political and economic theories of the German philosopher Karl Marx.
In works like The German Ideology and The Communist Manifesto, written with Frederick Engels, Marx proposes a model of history in which economic and political conditions determine social conditions.
Blanche, for example, calls governesses "incubi," and Lady Ingram believes that liaisons should never be allowed between governesses and tutors, because such relationships would introduce a moral infection into the household.
From a postmodern perspective, Marxism – as a grand theory or metanarrative – is no longer relevant for explaining contemporary societies, where social life is essentially chaotic, values are diverse, social structures have become increasingly fragmented; indeed, rather than class being the main social division, more differences arise around .
- Marxist Criticism Introduction Marxist literary criticism is based upon the political and economic theories of the German philosopher Karl Marx. In works like The German Ideology and The Communist Manifesto, written with Frederick Engels, Marx proposes a model of history in which economic and political conditions determine social conditions.
Within this essay, I will be examining the view that education re-creates the class system. Theories such as Marxism, Internationalism and feminism, would agree with each other in saying that the education system favours the working class, due to ideologies, discrimination, domination and social control.
Neo – Marxist Neo-Marxist is a political system or thought that differ from each to some extent in terms of ideologies. Neo-Marxist is a theory that formed based on humanism and idealism of Marxist theory.